Classification: Taxonomic ranks under review (cf. Illustrated Guide to Protozoa, Allen Press). Protista (unicellular eukaryotes) Ciliophora (with cilia, nuclear . Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan that causes. “Ich” or “white spot disease.” This disease is a major prob- lem to aquarists and commercial fish. The name Ichthyophthirius multifilis translates to “fish louse with many children”, a title that fits well, as each parasite may produce more than a.

Author: Malkree Moogular
Country: Guyana
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Health and Food
Published (Last): 8 May 2016
Pages: 37
PDF File Size: 13.94 Mb
ePub File Size: 15.99 Mb
ISBN: 235-2-45117-204-2
Downloads: 12512
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kigakree

Methylene blue is commonly available for aquarium stores. This causes the fish to become less tolerant to low oxygen concentrations in the water. In these fish, gills will often be pale and very swollen.

In addition to chemical treatment, cleaning the tank will also decrease the number of parasites. Ich White Spot Disease.

Repeating the appropriate chemical treatment will disrupt the life cycle and control the outbreak. Temperature affects how quickly the parasites multiply, so increasing the temperature can force them through their life cycle more miltifiliis, allowing treatments to target Ichthyophthirius in its theront stage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Because the sticky cyst of the tomonts may attach to organic material, cleaning this debris will help remove many cysts from the environment, further decreasing the number of emergent theronts.

The disease is highly contagious and spreads rapidly from one fish to another without the need for additional hosts direct life cycle. Use of copper sulfate during hot weather or when algae phytoplankton blooms are dense is strongly discouraged. Ichthyophthirjus gelatinous wall of the tomont cyst protects it and the daughter tomites from chemical treatment. The disadvantage of copper sulfate is that it is extremely toxic, particularly in water of low alkalinity.


By the time the white spots are visible to the naked eye, the infected fish is very sick.

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis – Wikipedia

Chemical treatment is only effective against free-swimming juvenile parasites [theronts]. An increase in parasites in the aquarium is the most common cause but severe stress, old age, or malnutrition can all lead to this condition.

Avoiding overstocking also reduces stress. The importance of this quarantine period for aquaculture or public aquarium facilities cannot be over-emphasized. Fish that survive an Ich infection may develop at least a partial immunity, which paralyzes theronts that attempt to infect it.

Severe infections rapidly lead to loss of condition and death. The recommended dosage is 0.

Gemmocystidae Gemmocystis Rhytidocystidae Rhytidocystis. Simplified scheme of the life cycle of the fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. This may include crowding, low dissolved oxygen, pollutants and moving. However, poor water quality stresses fish, which allows an outbreak to spread rapidly and increases mortality rates.

Infections have been detected in numerous species of aquarium and wild freshwater fish throughout the world. Infections have been reported from all regions where fish are cultured and in feral fish populations in all continents.

Trophonts infect the epidermis, cornea and gill filaments. Muktifiliis spots should never be used as the only means of diagnosis because other diseases may have a similar appearance.

Pages — In P. Because of the covering by this epithelial tissue and mucus, the trophont stage is protected from chemical treatment.

There was a problem providing the content you requested

Finally, special care is required when treating fish in soft water because formalin is more toxic in soft water. Periodic flushing of tanks and ponds with clean fresh water helps to reduce contamination levels.


The diagnosis of “Ich” can easily be confirmed by microscopic examination of skin and gills. Contrary to popular belief, white-spot is not present in every aquarium or pond. This article has been peer reviewed but is awaiting expert review. Heat treatment can be highly effective, and it can be combined with other treatments. A sub-clinically infected fish may initially only have a single trophont.

If Ich is detected before it becomes too serious, a number of different treatments can be applied. Infections are diagnosed by the detection of characteristic pustules containing feeding trophonts. Views Read Edit View history. Chromerida Chromeraceae Chromera velia Vitrellaceae Vitrella brassicaformis.

The parasite forms three developmental stages: Fish that have survived an “Ich” infection are known to be potential reservoirs of the parasite and may cause other fish to become infected. Copper, methylene blue, and baths of potassium permanganate, quinine hydrochloride, and sodium chloride aquarium salt have also been used but do not appear to offer an advantage over the more readily available formalin and malachite green products. When the organism gets into a large fish culture facility, it is difficult to control due to its fast reproductive cycle and its unique life stages.

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, The chemical is effective and relatively inexpensive, an important consideration when large volumes of water are treated.